Your kidneys remove waste and fluid from your blood to make urine. Sometimes, when you have too much of certain wastes and not enough fluid in your blood, these wastes can build up and stick together in your kidneys. These clumps of waste are called kidney stones.
Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.
Kidney Stone Treatment In India
Kidney stones are a common condition that can cause excruciating pain and discomfort. Although they can often pass on their own, complications may arise, requiring medical intervention. In India, there are various treatment options available for kidney stones, ranging from non-invasive procedures to minimally invasive surgeries. These treatments aim to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve overall kidney health. In this article, we will provide an overview of the different kidney stone treatment options available in India, their benefits and potential risks, and the cost of treatment. Additionally, we will share some tips on preventing kidney stones.
About Kidney Stone
Kidney stones are small, hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys. They can be composed of a variety of substances, including calcium, uric acid, and struvite. When these minerals and substances build up in the kidneys, they can form crystals, which can grow larger over time and develop into kidney stones.
Kidney stones can cause severe pain and discomfort, typically in the back or lower abdomen, as they move through the urinary tract. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and blood in the urine.
There are several factors that can increase the risk of developing kidney stones, including dehydration, a diet high in salt or protein, obesity, and certain medical conditions, such as gout and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment options for kidney stones in India may include non-invasive procedures like ESWL or minimally invasive surgeries like ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Lifestyle changes like staying hydrated and making dietary adjustments can also help prevent the formation of kidney stones.
several types of kidney stones, classified based on their
composition. The most common types of kidney stones include:
are the most common type of kidney stones, accounting for about 80%
of all cases. They form when calcium and oxalate combine in the
form when there is too much uric acid in the urine. They are common
in people who have gout or who consume a high-protein diet.
These are usually caused by a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. They can grow rapidly and become quite large.
These are rare and are caused by a genetic disorder that affects the way the body processes certain amino acids.
Less common types of kidney stones include:
Calcium phosphate stones:
These form when calcium combines with phosphate in the urine.
These are made up of more than one type of stone-forming substance.
Other rare types of stones: These include stones made of ammonium urate, xanthine, and rare mineral compounds.
The symptoms of kidney stones can vary depending on the size and location of the stone. Some common symptoms of kidney stones include:
The most common symptom of kidney stones is severe pain in the back, side, or lower abdomen. The pain may come and go and can be sharp, cramping, or dull.
Kidney stones can cause pain and discomfort when urinating. Some people may also experience a burning sensation or blood in the urine.
Nausea and vomiting:
Kidney stones can cause nausea and vomiting, particularly if the stone is blocking the urinary tract.
Fever and chills:
If a kidney stone is causing an infection, you may experience fever, chills, and other signs of infection.
Urinary urgency and frequency:
Kidney stones can cause the urge to urinate more often or more urgently than normal.
When to see a doctor?
Make an appointment with your nephrologist if you have any signs and symptoms that worry you.
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience:
Pain so severe that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position
Pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting
Pain accompanied by fever and chills
Blood in your urine
Difficulty passing urine
The causes and risk factors of kidney stones include:
One of the most common causes of kidney stones is dehydration, which can lead to a buildup of minerals and salts in the urine.
Eating a diet that is high in salt, protein, or oxalates can increase the risk of developing kidney stones.
A family history of kidney stones can increase the risk of developing stones.
Certain medical conditions:
Medical conditions such as gout, hyperparathyroidism, and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of kidney stones.
Certain medications, such as diuretics and calcium-based antacids, can increase the risk of kidney stones.
Obesity can increase the risk of developing kidney stones, possibly due to changes in hormone levels or metabolic factors.
Being sedentary can increase the risk of kidney stones, possibly due to changes in the way the body processes calcium.
Certain surgical procedures:
Certain surgical procedures, such as gastric bypass surgery, can increase the risk of developing kidney stones.
It’s important to note that not everyone who has these risk factors will develop kidney stones, and some people who do develop kidney stones may not have any of these risk factors.
Tips for Kidney Stone Prevention
Kidney stones can be diagnosed using a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Some of the most common methods of diagnosing kidney stones include:
Your healthcare provider will ask you about your symptoms and any medical conditions you may have. They may also ask about your family history of kidney stones.
Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam to check for signs of pain or tenderness in the abdomen or back.
A urine test can help detect any blood in the urine or signs of infection.
Imaging tests, such as a CT scan, X-ray, or ultrasound, can help detect the presence of kidney stones and determine their size and location.
Blood tests can help detect any abnormalities in kidney function or levels of calcium, uric acid, or other substances that can contribute to the formation of kidney stones.
24-hour urine collection:
In some cases, a 24-hour urine collection may be done to measure the levels of minerals and other substances in the urine, which can help determine the cause of kidney stones.
The treatment for kidney stones depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Some common treatments for kidney stones include:
Over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can help relieve pain and discomfort caused by kidney stones.
Drinking plenty of water can help flush out small kidney stones and prevent new ones from forming.
Certain medications, such as alpha-blockers or potassium citrate, can help relax the muscles in the urinary tract and prevent the formation of new stones.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL):
This is a non-invasive procedure that uses shock waves to break up kidney stones into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily in the urine.
This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a thin, flexible tube called an endoscope to remove kidney stones from the urinary tract.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL):
This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a small incision in the back to remove kidney stones.
In rare cases, open surgery may be necessary to remove large kidney stones that cannot be removed using other methods.
The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the size and location of the kidney stone, the severity of symptoms, and the overall health of the patient. It’s important to discuss the risks and benefits of each treatment option with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action.
Tips for Kidney Stone Prevention
Here are some tips on preventing kidney stones:
Stay hydrated: Drinking plenty of water throughout the day can help dilute the concentration of minerals and substances in your urine, making it less likely for kidney stones to form.
Adjust your diet: Reduce your intake of foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, and nuts, which can contribute to the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Limit your intake of animal protein and sodium, which can also increase the risk of kidney stones.
Get enough calcium: Contrary to popular belief, getting enough calcium in your diet can actually help prevent kidney stones by binding with oxalate in your intestines, preventing it from being absorbed in your kidneys.
Limit vitamin C supplements: Excess vitamin C can be converted to oxalate in the body, so it’s best to limit your intake of vitamin C supplements to no more than 500 mg per day.
Manage underlying medical conditions: If you have an underlying medical condition that increases your risk of kidney stones, such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease, work with your healthcare provider to manage it effectively.
By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of developing kidney stones and maintain good kidney health.